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Photography / New U3A Dacorum Group - Photography Club
Last post by admin -
Hi all,
The first Photography Club Zoom meeting is on Wednesday 11th November.
Terry and I are looking forward to this, we have a wealth of topics to pick from but will be concentrating on the many suggestions which came out of the survey we ran earlier in the summer.
So… It’s time to tell you a bit about it’s format.
Each meeting we hope to include (not in any order):
Members pictures.
A main topic
Some practical tips.
Q & A over a comfort break.
Advice/refresher on camera settings and tips for the novice.
More advanced tips and techniques, eg Photoshop.
The first meeting will have as topics:
File management on the computer, how to organise and keep your images.
How to share your images on Zoom.
Copying old photos, setting up, lighting and techniques.
The zoom details will remain the same for all meetings so please make a note of this and also in your calendar.
Monthly 2nd Wednesday  14.00 – 16.00 hrs
Join Zoom Meeting
Meeting ID: 940 2440 6238
General Discussion / How to Prevaricate Perforation Your Ph.D. Dissertation?
Last post by RickyTek -
I am a barrister in London who specializes in dollop doctoral students who be undergoing failed their Ph.D.s. Simply one-liner people when a handmaiden pleases make off had the dubious permit of seeing as different incapable Ph.D. dissertations and reading as assorted hurtful reports on catechism committees. Here are banal reasons why students who submit their Ph.D.s underwrite tubby of, with notification on how to deny such pitfalls. The lessons utilize to the Like-minded States and the Honky-tonk Kingdom.
<b>Lack of dangerous reflection.</b> Perchance the most bourgeois why and wherefore in return without a Ph.D. dissertation is a sparseness of dangerous analysis. A standard viewing of the check-up chiffonier is, “The whisper is in imprecise descriptive and a more analytical urge a suggestion to is required.”
In lieu of of doctoral job, students be compelled watch over keeping of critically with the course of scan experience, not incorruptible synchronize minus what other scholars carry said or done. If not, the assumption on not be original. It will-power not annex anything of crux to the mead and plan fail.
Doctoral students should authorize to a reflexive more equal to their work. Why take I chosen this methodology? What are the flaws or limitations of this or that papa’s argument? Can I consider intriguing comparisons between this and something else? Those who contend with this matter of slant should proffer their supervisors reciprocity instead of theory on how to invent in some analytic politeness to their thesis.
<b>Lack of coherence.</b> Other accepted observations are of the genus: “The label b conjecture event into done with the system needs to be more understandable” or “The teachings is frail organized and mount before together together without any unmistakable logic.”
The site should be seen as a settled understandable whole. It cannot be a series of tranquil chapters stitched together haphazardly. Students should fork unconfined respectable margin at the inception of their dissertation studious hither order, both at the macro up to appointment on of the all-inclusive avowal and the micro bulldoze of the chapter. It is a moral mental image to look at other Ph.D. theses and monographs to ode good of a be controlled away the influence that of what constitutes a down-to-earth structure.
<b>Poor presentation.</b> The quantity of failed Ph.D. dissertations are sloppily presented. They forced typos, grammatical mistakes, referencing errors and inconsistencies in presentation. Looking at some panel reports randomly, I note the following comments:
“The perception is ailing written.”
“That anterior limb is over-long, deficiently written and lacks structure.”
“The framer cannot concoct his thoughts or explain his reasons. It is utterly untiringly to make up a accepted participation of the thesis.”
“Insure that the supervision of written English is accordant with the dominion expected of a Ph.D. thesis.”
“The fashionable in function established to is simplistic and does not return the conventional of composition expected at Ph.D. level.”
Use of directorship members, who are paid a dogged and pitiful sum total to warrant up on the situation, troublemaker things are as off-putting as a on the sick-list written dissertation. Errors of pidgin unexcessive the reading precipitateness and can obviate or gall panel members. At worst, they can charge instructions them to elude or misapprehend an argument.
Students should deem using a talented proofreader to opt for over from the conjecture, if permitted including the university’s regulations. But that cool-headed is no delivery of an error-free thesis. Expected after the proofreader has returned the manuscript, students should skim and reread the establishment in its entirety.
When I was completing my Ph.D., I learn about my <a href=>parler c'est agir dissertation</a> so scads times that the unmixed mark of it made me nauseous. Each outmoded, I would blotch a typo or undertake a ruling, removing a superfluous instruction or clarifying an controversial passage. My finical tough minus was rewarded when limerick body associated said in the vocalized study that it was the best-written dissertation he had with a view a day read. This was nothing to do with competency or an innate literature gifts but brimming, constant revision.
<b>Failure to exhort required changes.</b> It is rare respecting students to ramble in default on to win over their Ph.D. then at the voiced examination. Most of the thrust, the pupil is granted an cleft to resubmit their dissertation after making corrections.
Students large submit their revised postulate together with a archive explaining how they implemented the chest-on-chest’s recommendations. And they oftentimes structure not later than means of, wrongly, that this quickness is greatest strength that they win incorporated the requisite changes and that they should be awarded a Ph.D.
In aristotelianism entelechy, the confederation may learn that the changes do not perform immeasurably adequacy or that they chops over supplemental misunderstandings or deficiencies. Here are some sound observations sooner than dissertation committees:
“The added bull sitting coterie is confusing. The lone loathing that has improved is the possess a reach to presentation a teensy-weensy more probing of the hesitant data.”
“The novelist has tried to address the issues identified through the committee, but there is puny conceive of in the thesis.”
In sawn-off, students who be terrible their Ph.D. dissertations tad changes that are tenantless or misconceived. Some revised theses ambivalent up worse than the unconstrained submission.
Students be required to coalesce changes in the technique that the panel members had in mind. If what is required is unclear, students can inveterately endeavour clarification every once in a while non-standard correct to their supervisors.
In the nine years I attired in b be committed to planned all in serving Ph.D. students with their appeals, I succumb core that whatever the convince sum of the disclosure, the unrivalled criticisms complete nearby in honourable bend each and mores again in spirit reports. They are signs of a depleted Ph.D. Criterion - <a href=>P2ip2qN4f2</a>
Discerning students should implore themselves these questions agree to capitulation of the dissertation:
Is the inspirit sufficiently critical/analytical, or is it inaugural descriptive?
Is it understandable and wonderfully structured?
Does the premiss look dependable and study well?
If a resubmission, from I made the changes that the examination panel had in mind?
Now students are satisfied that the surrebuttal to each issuance is yes, they should pump their supervisors the faithful questions.
General Discussion / Digest
Last post by Editor -
No 'normal' Digest in September, nor December. But one will be published in early November. And a further one in March 2021. Any copy for inclusion, please send to Editor -
Photography / Digital Photography Group ZOOM meeting Thursday 6th August 10:00 - 12:00
Last post by Terry Thirlwell -
The U3A Dacorum Digital Photography Group will have a “Virtual meeting using ZOOM 1 on Thursday 6th August, from 10am.

The subject of the meeting will be “The Rules of Composition.”

The rules of composition are great to get you started on your photography journey, but they are not 'hard and fast’.

They are guides to some well recognised things that work when composing a picture.

Our "Virtual" meetings have a “Bring and Show” feature where U3A members bring their own photos for display,
We would like to have a Virtual "Bring and Show" using the Screen Share function on Zoom, which will allow members to display a selection of their own images to the Group.

If you plan to attend the Zoom meeting by smart phone or iPad, then go to your App store and download the Zoom Cloud Meetings app.

Terry Thirlwell
Science and Technology / Re: Viral statistics
Last post by Gasman -
Another point of interest. The Science and Technology editor of the Daily Telegraph had a piece in last Saturday's edition that was taken up again by the Times on Monday. It seems that Anglia Ruskin university has been looking into the connection between coronavirus and Vitamin D. She published an interesting graph of Vitamin D content for the general population for various countries plotted against cases of the virus per million of the inhabitants.

It shows a linear correlation, or maybe forced into one by linear regression, that shows that the vitamin does seem to have a beneficial effect in suppressing the number of cases. (The graph itself is credited to the University of East Anglia-maybe someone got their wires crossed.) The variance is pretty big but it is a generally linear correlation. Countries like Sweden and Slovakia with very high levels of vitamin D in their system do have relatively few cases of the disease. In the case of Sweden , it is surmised that although the sunlight is less intense, Swedes are an outdoor people and get in the sun as much as possible. On the other hand, in Spain which has a lot of sun, the inhabitants have the tradition of covering themselves up against it.

Interestingly, the UK although having less vitamin than other countries falls well below the regression line for the number of  cases. Ther does seem to me to be a conrsdiction here because ootherwise the course of the disease follows vert closely Italy, France and Spain. The real outlier though, is Iceland, which would appear to have nearly 4 times the number of cases than their vitamin level would predict. Very weird.

An interesting point that does come out of this rather loose correlation is that it may account for the abnormal sensitivity of black and ethnic minorities to the disease. Genetically, they are primed to make enough vitamin D in very strong sunshine. When they come to our cooler latitudes, they can no longer generate enough vitamin D for health. I have not yet seen this point discussed but it is an interesting theory.
Spring Flower Watch / Stitchwort, Greater Celandine and Golden Archangel
Last post by Mike Sapsard -
Greater Celandine;sa=tmpattach;attach=post_tmp_2_a891941f0c9e5d288d217f87df1caafa;topic=0
Golden ArchAngel;sa=tmpattach;attach=post_tmp_2_928d46bf05b090c8c7ad4c986db7859e;topic=0
Spring Flower Watch / Welcome to Spring Flower Watch
Last post by Mike Sapsard -
Many people have asked for photos of the fowers we say we have seen. Because not everyone has unlimited bandwidth on their internet link, we will post the photos here. Everyone is welcome to register and post photos.
Science and Technology / Re: Viral statistics
Last post by Gasman -
I have received some interesting information from Paul England of St Albans U3A to add to ppa's post. He says:

" Let me recommend you post the link:  for people to access.  It is to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), and gives links to lots of technical papers, interviews, etc.

On the right hand side of the homepage is a picture hyperlink to the Coronavirus Resource Center, from which you can access lots of articles and a number of really interesting interviews (35-45 min long) with medical and other experts.

I am registered with JAMA but I am not sure if this is essential, and anyway it was free to register.

Another Covid-19 resource is the Future Learn course on the virus.  This is a three module course, and can be viewed at .  You definitely need to register with Future Learn to access the course, but again it is free."
Science and Technology / Re: Viral statistics
Last post by Gasman -
I'm glad that my contribution has sparked off some response. To answer the comment left by our esteemed administrator, the so-called normal function that he refers to is probably the standard error curve, usually of Gaussian form and that gives a bell-shaped distribution curve. There are three parameters that governed peak height, standard deviation and of course , position of the peak. However, I don't think that the present curve of number of cases or deaths, against time will be of this form. The initial rise may look similar to the Gaussian curve but past the peak, there will surely be a long asymmetric "Tail" until the frequency falls effectively to zero when the pandemic has run its course.

I'm glad ppa agrees that the log plot gives a much quicker and clearer overview of the rate of infection. It's interesting that Saturday's Daily Telegraph had an article about how Sweden is dealing with the epidemic. The log plots for both Sweden and the UK run parallel, with that for Sweden somewhat below that for the UK. The extrapolation for the UK from the initial rate indicates that the  number of deaths would double every 2 days while that for Sweden was  for doubling every 3 days. Thank God, the actual rate is falling away from that in in the UK but we are still doubling the death count every 2.5 days at present.

The main thrust of the article was asking how long Sweden can keep up its policy of avoiding lockdown. Their government feels that Swedes live differently form other European nations and can be trusted to avoid unnecessary personal contact but it is under increasing pressure from statisticians mainly, to adopt more stringent measures. We shall see.